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Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses are more likely to induce the full spectrum of effects. [3] The name amphetamine is derived from its chemical name: alpha-methylphenethylamine. "Methamphetamine for Hitler's Germany: 1937 to 1945". (1978). (1887), Band 3, S. 616–622. Independent research (e.g. PMID 16492800. Sci. Kish, S. J. When prescription amphetamines are taken orally and in low doses, drug abuse and addiction is not a serious risk. Retrieved 13 October 2013. Bett WR (August 1946). Amphetamine (also known as alpha-methylphenethylamine, amfetamine, and speed) is a stimulant substance of the phenethylamine class. Retrieved 29 January 2012. Central nervous system stimulants: historical aspects and clinical effects. Galli, A., Poulsen, N.W., Sulzer, D., & Sonders, M.S. Hofmann FG (1983). The exact bioavailability of amphetamine is not known, but it is believed to be over 75% by mouth, and higher by injection or intranasal administration[24][25]. [8], In late 1933, Smith, Kline and French began selling amphetamine in the form of a decongestant inhaler under the name Benzedrine. The basic form is more readily absorbed in the intestine and less readily removed by the kidneys, potentially increasing its half life [25]. Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Amphetamine exerts its behavioural effects by increasing the signaling activity of neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the reward and executive function pathways of the brain. Ann. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.04.003. Rasmussen N (2011). These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. All amphetamines, whether legal or illegal, activate chemical processes throughout the brain and body and so “speed up” most every bodily function. Amphetamine was first synthesized in Germany in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu, who named it phenylisopropylamine.However, its stimulant effects remained unknown until 1927, when it was independently re-synthesized by Gordon Alles and discovered to have sympathomimetic properties. [11][12] "Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (1), CD003026-CD003026. The name 'amphetamine' is a contraction from αlphamethylphenethylamine, Attention disorders are often treated using Adderall or a generic equivalent, a formulation of mixed amphetamine salts that contain both racemic-amphetamine, in the sulfate and aspartate monohydrate salt forms, and enantiopure dextroamphetamine, in the sulfate and saccharate salt forms, mixed to yield a final ratio of 3 parts dextroamphetamine to 1 part levoamphetamine. The hyperthermia and the hypertension produced by high doses amphetamines are a primary cause of transient breakdowns in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) resulting in concomitant regional neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in laboratory animals. For example, an object's speed can be measured in miles per hour (mph),; kilometers per hour (km/h); meters per second (m/s), which is the SI-unit for speed. "Miscellaneous Sympathomimetic Agonists". 2. any of a group of drugs closely related to this substance and having similar actions, such as methamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Amphetamine is considered to be the quintessential member of the stimulant class due to its extensively studied effects and long history of clinical use. "Historical overview of methamphetamine". Internationally, amphetamine is a Schedule II controlled substance under the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[51]. [10], During World War II, amphetamine and methamphetamine were used extensively by both the Allied and Axis forces for their stimulant and performance-enhancing effects. Berman, S. M., Kuczenski, R., McCracken, J. T., & London, E. D. (2009). Defalque RJ, Wright AJ (April 2011). [13], Amphetamine is still illegally synthesized and sold on the black market, primarily in European countries. In the first place, it must be taken into account that the consumption of … Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by Lazar Edeleanu at the University of Berlin. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. Med. Speed (methamphetamine, C10H15N) is a potent and addictive central nervous system stimulant, chemically related to amphetamine, but with greater central nervous system side effects. Speed is amphetamine, a stimulating drug that triggers the brain’s reward system giving the user feelings of pleasure. These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. To find speed , = where is the distance and is the time that has gone by.. Units of measurement for speed. "Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective". 22 (250): 205–218. 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